A wetland is an area of land characterized by soil either covered in or saturated with water. Depending on the type of wetland, they may be permanently or temporarily flooded, and the depth and duration of the flooding vary. However, even during the unflooded periods, the soil remains saturated. The water saturation in these ecosystems determines soil development and influences biological, physical, and chemical attributes. Water also creates ideal conditions that foster the growth of hydrophytes, which are plants that are adapted to grow in saturated soils. The water in wetlands is often groundwater but can also come from a nearby lake or river. Seawater can also produce wetlands in coastal regions that encounter strong tides.
Some wetlands are transitional zones between upland and aquatic ecosystems, meaning they are neither completely dry nor wholly submerged. Others are spread across the landscape in upland depressions. Trees and other sturdy vegetation grow in wetlands, while mosses and grasses are the dominant hydrophytes in wetlands that are more frequently flooded. Wetlands can be found in many types of climates and on every continent except Antarctica.
Types Of Wetlands
There are several types of wetlands, and they all vary due to several factors such as differences in soil and topography. Most scientists agree that the three major types of wetlands are swamps, marshes, and bogs. Wetlands vary in size and can be found inland or along coastlines. Their landscapes also differ, with some dominated by woody plants while others are wet grasslands.
Marshes are wetlands that are either flooded permanently or during high water periods. They are often at the edges of rivers or lakes. Marshes create flat, grassy borders along coastlines, inside bays, and near river mouths. The water in marshes is either from surface water such as lakes or groundwater. Many plants and animals inhabit marshes due to their abundance of nutrients and neutral pH…
Read more:: What Is A Wetland? – WorldAtlas